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2018考研英语二真题及参考答案

来源:仕程公务员网  发布:2017-12-24  http://1st4limos.com/

  2018年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text。 Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET。 (10 points)

  Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science。 The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people will 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 。

  In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested。 Student’s willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity。 For one 5 each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment。 The twist? Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked。

  Twenty-seven students were told which pens were electrified, another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified 7 left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew what would 8 subsequent experiments reproduced, this effect with other stimuli 9 the sound of finger nails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects。

  The drive to_10_is deeply rooted in humans。 Much the same as the basic drives for_11_or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago Curiosity is often considered a good instinct-it can _12_New Scientific advances, for instance-but sometimes such_13_can backfire, the insight that curiosity can drive you to do _14_things is a profound one。

  Unhealthy curiosity is possible to 15 , however, in a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image。 These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor。 ” Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity。 Hsee says “in other words, don’t read online comments”。

  1、[A]Protect [B] resolve [C] discuss [D] ignore

  2、[A]refuse [B] wait [C] regret [D] seek

  3、[A]hurt [B] last [C]mislead [D] rise

  4、[A]alert [B] tie [C] treat [D] expose

  5、[A]message [B] review [C] trial [D] concept

  6。[A] remove [B] weaken [C] interrupt [D] deliver

  7。[A]when [B] if [C] though [D] unless

  8。[A] continue [B] happen [C] disappear [D] change

  9。[A] rather than [B] regardless of [C] such as [D] owing to

  10。[A] discover [B] forgive [C] forget [D] disagree

  11。[A] pay [B] marriage [C] schooling [D] food

  12。[A] lead to [B]rest on [C] learn from [D] begin with

  13。[A] withdrawal [B] persistence [C] inquiry [D] diligence

  14。[A] self-reliant [B] self-destructive [C] self-evident [D] self-deceptive

  15。[A] define [B] resist [C]replace [D] trace

  16。[A] overlook [B] predict [C] design [D] conceal

  17。[A] remember [B] promise [C] choose [D] pretend

  18。[A] relief [B] plan [C] duty [D] outcome

  19。[A] why [B] whether [C] where [D] how

  20。[A] consequences [B] investments [C] strategies [D] limitations

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts。 Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D。 Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET。 (40 points)

  Text 1

  It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future。

  Mr。 Koziatek is part of something pioneering。 He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical。 When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?

  As Koziatek knows, there is learning in just about everything。 Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum。 They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle。

  But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice。 Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority。 Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype。。。that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,”he says。

  On one hand, that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution。 Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was。 The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated。 More education is the new principle。 We want more for our kids, and rightfully so。

  But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all – and the subtle devaluing of anything less – misses an important point: That’s not the only thing the American economy need。 Yes, a bachelor’s degree opens more doors。 But even now, 54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing。 But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained。

  In other words, at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing, one obvious solution is staring us in the face。 There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them。 Koziatek’s Manchester school of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap。

  Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call。 When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts。

A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of 。
   [A] practical ability

  [B] academic training

  [C] pioneering spirit

  [D] mechanical memorization

There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who 。
   [A] have a stereotyped mind

  [B] have no career motivation

  [C] are not academically successful

  [D] are financially disadvantaged

We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates 。
   [A] used to have big financial concerns

  [B] used to have more job opportunities

  [C] are reluctant to work in manufacturing

  [D] are entitled to more educational privileges

The headlong push into bachelor‘s degrees for all 。
   [A] helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs

  [B] may narrow the gap in working-class jobs

  [C] is expected to yield a better-trained workforce

  [D] indicates the overvaluing of higher education

The author‘s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as 。
   [A] supportive

  [B] tolerant

  [C] disappointed

  [D] cautious

  Text 2

  While fossil fuels—still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it’s clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar。 The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world: They now account for more than half of new power sources going on line。

  Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources。 But increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables, especially wind and solar。 The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years。

  In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source。 In Scotland, for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes。 While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift。 In March, for the first time, wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US, reported the US Energy Information Administration。

  President Trump has underlined fossil fuels—especially coal—as the path to economic growth。 In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source。 But that message did not play well with many in Iowa, where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation—and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers。

  The question “What happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?” has provided a quick put-down for skeptics。 But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely。

  The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles。 Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years。

  While there’s a long way to go, the trend lines for renewables are spiking。 The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change。 What Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought。

The word “plummeting”(Line 3, Para。 2) is closest in meaning to 。
   [A] stabilizing

  [B] changing

  [C] falling

  [D] rising

According to Paragraph 3, the use of renewable energy in America 。
   [A] is progressing notably

  [B] is as extensive as in Europe

  [C] faces many challenges

  [D] has proved to be impractical

It can be learned that in Iowa, 。
   [A] wind is a widely used energy source

  [B] wind energy has replaced fossil fuels

  [C] tech giants are investing in clean energy

  [D] there is a shortage of clean energy supply

Which of the following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?
   [A] Its application has boosted battery storage。

  [B] It is commonly used in car manufacturing。

  [C] Its continuous supply is becoming a reality。

  [D] Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult。

It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy____。
   [A] will bring the USA closer to other countries。

  [B] will accelerate global environmental change。

  [C] is not really encouraged by the USA government。

  [D] is not competitive enough with regard to its cost。

  Text 3

  The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing-Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for $l3.5bn,but two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service, which doesn‘t have any physical product at all。 What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users’ friendships and social lives。

  Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identities, but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through。 Even without knowing what was in the messages, the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be。 What political journalist, what party whip, would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Therea May‘s enemies are currently plotting? It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what。

  Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power。 But it is clumsy。 For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of Change within the digital economy。 By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power。 But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too。 Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don‘t pay for them。 The users of their Services are not their customers。 That would be the people who buy advertising from them-and Facebook and Google, the two virtual giants, dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies。

  The product they‘re selling is data, and we, the users, convert our lives to date for the benefit of the digital giants。 Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew the produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield。 Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spamme out of our inboxes。 It doesn’t feel like a human or democratic relationship, even if both sides benefit。

According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its 。
   [A] digital products

  [B] user information

  [C] physical assets

  [D] quality service

Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may 。
   [A] worsen political disputes

  [B] mess up customer records

  [C] pose a risk to Facebook users

  [D] mislead the European commission

According to the author, competition law 。
   [A] should sever the new market powers

  [B] may worsen the economic imbalance

  [C] should not provide just one legal solution

  [D] cannot keep pace with the changing market

Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because 。
   [A] they are not defined as customers

  [B] they are not financially reliable

  [C] the services are generally digital

  [D] the services are paid for by advertisers

The ants analogy is used to illustrate 。
   [A] a win-win business model between digital giants

  [B] a typical competition pattern among digital giants

  [C] the benefits provided for digital giants ’customers

  [D] the relationship between digital giants and their users

  Text 4

  To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy, Cal Newport, author of Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World, recommends building a habit of “deep work”-the ability to focus without distraction。

  There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work- be it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specific task; developing a daily ritual; or taking a “journalistic” approach to seizing moment of deep work when you can throughout the day。 Whichever approach, the key is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it。

  Newport also recommends “deep scheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time。 “At any given point, I should have deep work scheduled for roughly the next mouth。 Once on the calendar, I protect this time like I would a doctor’s appointment or important meeting”, he writes。

  Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you priorities your day – in particular how we craft our to-do lists。 Tim Harford, author of Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives, points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups: some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities; others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail, day by day。

  While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to the execution of tasks, they were wrong: the detailed daily plans demotivated students 。Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective, while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results。

  In order to make the most of our focus and energy, we also need to embrace downtime, or as Newport suggests, “be lazy”。

  “Idleness is not just a vacation, an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to the brain as vitamin D is to the body …”[idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,” he argues。

  Srini Pillay, an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, believes this counterintuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the may our brains operate。 When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task, they tend to be more efficient。

  “What people don’t realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocus circuits in their brain,” says Pillay。

The key to mastering the art of deep work is to 。
   [A] keep to your focus time

  [B] list your immediate tasks

  [C] make specific daily plans

  [D] seize every minute to work

The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that 。
   [A] distractions may actually increase efficiency。

  [B] daily schedules are indispensable to studying

  [C] students are hardly motivated by monthly goals

  [D] detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected

According to Newport, idleness is 。
   [A] a desirable mental state for busy people。

  [B] a major contributor to physical health

  [C] an effective way to save time and energy

  [D] an essential factor in accomplishing any work

Pillay believes that our brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused 。
   [A] can result in psychological well-being

  [B] can bring about greater efficiency

  [C] is aimed at better balance in work

  [D] is driven by task urgency

This text is mainly about 。
   [A] ways to relieve the tension of busy life

  [B] approaches to getting more done in less time

  [C] the key to eliminating distractions

  [D] the cause of the lack of focus time

  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column。 There are two extra choices in the right column。 Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET。 (10 points)

  A。 Just say it

  B。 Be present

  C。 Pay a unique compliment

  D。 Name, places, things

  E。 Find the “me too”s

  F。 Skip the small talk

  G。 Ask for an opinion

  Five ways to make conversation with anyone

  Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link。

  You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at the door。 Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link。

  Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with strangers。

  41。____________

  Suppose you are in a room with someone you don’t know and something within you says“I want to talk with this person”—this is something the mostly happens with all of us。 You wanted to say something—the first word—but it just won’t come out。 It feels like itis stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out。

  Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now!

  I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow。 So keep it simple: “Hi”,“Hey”or“Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and say“Hi”。

  42。____________

  It’s a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable。

  Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of“hi”,“hello”, “how are you?”and“what’s going on?”you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that’s can make it so memorable。

  So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions。 Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask。

  43。____________

  When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point。 When you start conversation from there and then move outwards, you’ll find all of a sudden that the conversation becomes a lot easier。

  44。____________

  Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”。

  So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly。 Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation。

  45。____________

  You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name。 Isn’t that awkward!

  So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you talk about。

  When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing。 So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going。

  That’s it。 Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone。 Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!

  Section Ⅲ Translation

  46.Directions:

  Translate the following text into Chinese。 Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET。 (15 points)

  A fifth garder gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations。 He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it as well。 The boy is convinced that if he reads enough。 He can explore as many career paths as he likes。 And so he reads—everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels。 He reads so passionately that his parents have to institute a “no reading policy”at the dinner table。

  That boy was Bill Gates,and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of the most science fiction and reference books; recently, he revealed that he reads at least so nonfiction books a year。 Gates chooses nonfiction title because they explain how the world works。“Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge,”Gates says。

  Section ⅣWriting

   Part A

  47。 Directions:

  Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith。 Write him an email to

  1)apologize and explain the situation, and

  2)suggest a future meeting。

  You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET。

  Do not use your own name。 Use“Li Ming” instead。

  Do not write your address。(10 points)

  Part B

  48。 Directions:

  Write an essay based on the chart below。 In your writing you should

  1)interpret the chart and

  2)give your comments

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET。(15 points)

2017年某市消费者选择餐厅时的关注因素

2018年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题答案详解

  注意:英语试卷为花卷,以答案内容进行核对

  Section I Use of English

  1、[答案][B] resolve

[解析]此处考察词义辨析。首段首句以问句形式提出文章中心:人们浏览网络负面评论信息以及做一些明显令人痛苦的事情的原因。第二句给出原因:因为人们内心里有一种____(生活中的)不确定因素或不安的需求,空格处所需的动词需要和后面的宾语uncertainty构成语义搭配。B选项resolve (解决、消除)符合语义要求;A选项protect(保护),C选项discuss(讨论),D选项ignore(忽略)带入空格后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为B选项resolve。
   2、[答案][D] seek

[解析]此处考察词义辨析。空格所在句指出:这项新研究表明,这种求知需求如此强烈以至于人们会_____(答案)来满足他们的好奇心即使他们清楚答案会_____。空格处所填入的词需要和后面隐含的宾语答案来构成顺畅的语义搭配,只有D选项seek(试图、设法、寻找)符合要求;A选项refuse(拒绝),B选wait(等待),C选项regret(遗憾)带入后,语义不通顺。故正确答案为[D]seek。
   3、[答案][A] hurt

[解析]此处考察词义辨析。空格所在句指出:这项新研究表明,这种求知需求如此强烈以至于人们寻找答案来满足他们的好奇心即使答案明显 本句中的even when(即使)构成了前后的对立关系,因此空格处所填入的词需和前面的感情色彩词“strong”及语义构成对立,只有A选项hurt(令人痛苦)符合要求;另外此处的it is clear that the answer will hurt 也和第一句中的that will obviously be painful 构成了近义复现。故A选项为正确答案。
   4、[答案][D] expose

  [解析]此处考察固定短语。空格所在处,构成了___oneself to sth结构,只有D选项expose符合要求(使某人暴露在……中),故D选项expose为正确答案。

  5、[答案][C] trail

[解析]此处考察词义辨析。本段段首提到“a series of four experiments”,空格所在句给出其中一个实验的信息,只有C选项trail与experiment语义相近,故正确答案为C选项trail。
   6、[答案][D]deliver

  [解析]此处考察上下文信息对应以及动宾搭配问题。上文指出:For one trial, each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment。 在一个试验中,研究人员给每位受试者一堆笔并声称其源于先前的实验。这是实验的背景。下文具体实验展开,Half of the pens would… an electric shock when clicked。 有一半的比在按下的时候会使使人触电。所以比对选项,要选择deliver ,发出,递送。因此选择 D。 deliver

  7、[答案][A]when

  [解析]此处考察上下文句间的逻辑关系。空前空后是状语的关系。上文讲的是Twenty-seven students were told which pens were rigged; another 27 were told only…研究人员告知了27名受试学生哪些笔是内有玄机,而另外27名学生只知道有些笔是带电的。下文就是具体的发生的实验状态了。当他们独自在房里时, … 而不是条件if, unless或者 转折关系。因此选择A。

  8、[答案][B]happen

  [解析]此处考察上下语境下的句内动词关系。根据上文的实验背景,试验中27个人知道哪些笔是内有玄机,而另外27名学生只知道有些笔是带电的。下面的告知了实验的结论 :当他们独自在房里时,那些不知哪些笔带电的学生按下了更多的笔头,比这些受试者多,后面是定语,显然这些受试者是只上文被告知的人,所以这些人知道the students who knew what would happen,强调结果性。所以选择B。 happen

  9、[答案][D]such as

  [解析]此处考察句间的逻辑关系。上文在之后其他刺激因素的实验中, 后文讲到具体的实验:指甲刮黑板的声音和令人生厌的昆虫图片 显然这里需要例证关系,故选择D.such as

  10、[答案][A]discover

  [解析]此处考察上下文的信息对应和句内信息对应。这是个中心复现词,文章开篇提出:The human drive to resolve uncertainty is so strong …人们对于寻找答案以消除不确定因素总是乐此不疲。再根据上文的实验,都表示这是一种discover的需求,越是不确定的,越好奇。故选择A。 discover

  11、[答案][D] food

  [解析]此处考察同义复现。这个空出现在卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon University)的观点中,前后观点没有任何转折连词,所以前后句应该一脉相承。前文中the drive is deeply rooted in human,指的是人类根深蒂固的本性,而且后文也说到curiosity is a good instinct(本能),探索的动力在人类中根深蒂固,与食物或避难所的基本动力相当。因此此处应该选food。A选项 pay 支付;B选项 marriage 婚姻;C选项schooling 学习教育,皆不符合文意。

  12、[答案][A] lead to

  [解析]此处考察成分搭配。原文表达:好奇心通常被认为是一种很好的本能——它会________新的科学进步,此处选择A选项lead to 符合文意。B选项 rest on 取决于;C选项learn from向…学习;D选项 begin with 以…开始,皆不符合文意。

  13、[答案][C] inquiry

  [解析]此处考察反义复现。原文表达:but sometimes such _________can backfire。 but一词的出现就说明前后两句话是转折句义,前文说好奇心会带来新的科学进步;后文的一个指示代词such一出现,就证明和前句的主语是一致的,在此只能选择curiosity 的近义词,为C inquiry。A 选项 withdrawal 撤回;B选项 persistence 坚持; D选项 diligence 勤奋,皆不符合文意。

  14、[答案][B] self-destructive

  [解析]此处考察成分搭配。The insight that curiosity can drive you to do______ things is a profound one。因为前文有所提示,but sometimes such _________can backfire,有时候好奇心会适得其反,这句话也是对于上文的承接,因此这里需要填入的是好奇心带来的副作用的表达,因此选[B] self-destructive 自我毁灭的。A 选项 self-reliant自力更生的;C选项 self-evident 显而易见的;D选项self-deceptive自欺欺人的,皆不符合文意。

  15、[答案][B] resist

  [解析]此处考察同义复现。Unhealthy curiosity is possible to __________, however。 这句话之后出现了论据,用以支撑前文的论点:In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to predict how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to choose to see such an image,在最后的实验中,那些积极预测自己目睹不太悦目图片感受的受试者,他们选择此类图片的可能性较小。此处picture were less likely to choose to see such an image=resist,是对于本段论点句的同义复现,因为选择B 选项resist。A 选项define定义;C选项replace 替代;D选项trace追踪,皆不符合文意。

  16、[答案][B]predict

[解析]此处考察句间逻辑关系,属于句子内部的显性线索。本段首句是本段的中心:然而,抵制病态的好奇心理是并非不可能。所以可以预测出这一段会围绕抵制病态的好奇心会有什么好的影响。In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image.16题所在句子是participants的后置定语,用来修饰受测者,他们积极地去如何,与后面定语从句中目睹不太愉悦的照片后他们将(would)会有什么样的感觉,可以得出是提前想象出来的,故选择B predict,预测。
   17、[答案][C]choose

[解析]此处考察句间逻辑关系,属于句子内部的显性线索。此题所在句子结构化简后是participants were less likely to 17 to see such an image。这里面的such image指的是上面提到的an unpleasant picture,所以既然已经知道图片会带来不愉悦的感觉,就不可能去选择了,故选择C ,choose选择。
   18、[答案][D] outcome

[解析] 此处考察句间逻辑关系,属于句子内部的显性线索。These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one‘s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor。 18题所在位置是the 18 of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time此短语是imagining同位语,用来解释imagining:为利用好奇心可提前想象的结果。所以此题选择是的imagining的同义词。
   19、[答案][B] whether

  [解析]此处考察句间的逻辑关系。imagining can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor。这种结果可以帮助人们决定它们。。。值得一试。根据句间逻辑关系,这些研究结果表明,利用好奇心可提前想象事件的结果,从而帮助人们决定它们是否值得一试。故B whether为正确选项。

  20、[答案][A] consequences

[解析]此处考察词义辨析。“Thinking about long-term 20 is key to mitigating the possible negative effects of curiosity,” 思考长期。。。。才是减轻好奇心负面消极影响的关键所在。负面消极影响是好奇心带来的,所以要考虑这种长期的影响,B选项investment投资 C选项strategies 策略D选项limitations限制,都不符合语境,故A选项为正确选项。
   Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21、[答案][A] practical ability

  [解析]根据题干可知这是一道典型的例证题。根据题干关键词“a broken bike chain”定位到第二段第二句,向前找其论点句 “He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical。 由该句可知,在他(Mr。 Koziaek)任教的这个学校里,学习不是书本、测试和机械记忆这些事情,而是实践。所以举“a broken bike chain”的例子是说明学生们缺乏实践能力,选A选项 practical ability。

  22、[答案][C] are not academically successful

[解析]根据题干可以定位到第四段,相关语句为“that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says。 其中,“can’t make it academically”就是对应答案C中的“are not academically successful”, 因此,正确答案为C 选项are not academically successful。
   23、[答案][B] used to have more job opportunities

  [解析]根据题干要求定位到第五段,解决本题的关键是对第三句话“The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated。”的理解,尤其需要注意本句的时态,定语从句“that the US economy once offered to high school graduates”是过去时态,表明“美国经济曾经为高中毕业生提供了工作保障”,而主句“The job security has largely evaporated”却是现在完成时,意为“这种工作保障在很大程度上已经蒸发了”,说明曾经的工作机会现在已经不再拥有了,故而[B]选项是正确选项。

  24、[答案][D] indicates the overvaluing of higher education

  [解析]根据题干关键词“headlong push”以及“bachelor’s degree”直接定位到文章第六段第一句话。根据第一句话“But the headlong push into bachelor’s degree for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything less—misses an important point: That’s not the only thing the American economy needs”(大力推动学士学位—以及低估其他任何方面—使得人们忽略了非常重要的一点:这并不是美国经济所唯一需要的),可初步确定正确选项为D“indicates the overvaluing of higher education”(高估了高等教育)。另外,第二句先是认可了这种做法的好处:“Yes, a bachelor degree opens more doors”(学士学位为本科生打开了更多扇门)。但是,第三行最后出现转折词But,说明后面内容一定是负面情感取向,是“bachelor degree”没能解决的问题,因此,D选项为正确答案。

  25、[答案][A] supportive

  [解析]本题考查作者的态度。一般最后一段凸显作者的态度, 第一句话“Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call。”说明“Koziatek学校为我们敲响了警钟”。第二句话“When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts”表明“当教育适合所有人的时候,它同样也造成一种危险,即容易忽视国家的人才多元化。”同时我们也注意到第七段最后一句话说“… is to fill the gap。”(Koziatek学校正试图填补这一空白), 说明作者的态度是支持性的,即supportive。因此,A选项是正确答案。

  Text 2

  26、[答案][C] failing

[解析]词汇释义题。根据论点论据关系,二段最后一句话证明but之后的论点句。由第二段最后一句得知在过去8年中,solar panels (太阳电池板)和wind turbines (风轮机)成本分别下降了80%和约1/3,故可推知可再生能源的价格会下降,故C项failing正确。
   27、[答案][A] is progressing notably

[解析]逻辑推理题。根据题干应该定位到三段第三句话。本段第三句说“其他国家在清洁能源发展方面保持领先(takes the lead),美国也看到了显著的变化”,also提示我们美国和其他国家的情况应该有相似之处。再结合后一句中的数据,可确定美国可再生能源的使用正稳步发展,A项正确。
   28、[答案][A] wind is a widely used energy source

[解析]逻辑推理题。由Iowa我们可快速定位至第四段。一般来讲,推理题优先考虑段落主旨,But转折之后应该为本段中心。尽管前两句提到Trump不看好风能,但but后面话锋一转,说到Iowa的很多人不赞成这种看法,并列举数据说明风能在Iowa的发展势头良好,故本题选A。
   29、[答案][C] Its continuous supply is becoming a reality

[解析]双段推理题。根据提干关键词Paragraph 5&6定位到5、6段,双段推理题应该优先考虑双段主旨。第5段中心为关键信息词but之后的内容。文中a boost in the storage capacity of batteries keeps power flowing around the clock对应选项中的its continuous supply; is becoming a reality对应文中is making their ability to。。。。同样,第6段可以验证。6段中心为最后一句话Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years, 也说明这件事在未来可能成为现实。
   30、[答案][C] is not really encouraged by the US government

[解析]推理判断题。根据提干关键词the last paragraph定位到文中最后一段,最后一段关键信息词while(尽管)引导的内容为重点信息:“尽管还有很长的路要走,这种趋势势不可挡”,故可以排除D: is not competitive enough with regard to its cost。而根据第二句“have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change” 故排除B: will accelerate global environmental change。文章最后一句“what Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less at a time of a global shift in thought。” “无论华盛顿行动还是不行动越来越不重要了”,可以推测出美国政府的态度,因此选C。
   Text 3

  31、[答案][B] user information

[解析]细节题。题干问:根据第一段,脸谱收购WhatsApp 应用的目的是为了什么,由此定位于文章第一段,本段第一句末说脸谱出巨资购买的应用是一种messaging service,就是信息服务,而紧接着本段最后一句话说明WhatsApp 应用提供的这种信息服务实际上是一种intricate and finely detailed web of its users’ friendships and social lives,复杂的和极其详细的用户朋友圈和社交生活的方面的信息。答案B正是这句话的同义改写。
   32、[答案][C] pose a risk to Facebook users

[解析]细节题。根据题干中的关键词Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities定位于文章第二段。本段中的第二句话指出“即使不知道具体的信息内容是什么,知道了信息是谁发的和信息发给谁也有可能透露客户隐私”。也就是说,绑定电话号码和脸谱身份的做法极有可能泄露客户隐私,增加客户的个人信息风险。答案C正是这句话的概括。
33、[答案][D] cannot keep pace with the changing market
[解析]细节题。根据题干回文定位到文章第三段,第三句话“it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy。”意为:对比数码经济中变化的速度,它是很缓慢的,cannot keep pace with 是选项中slow的同义替换,因此正确答案为选项D。
   34、[答案][D]the services are paid for by advertisers

[解析]因果细节题。根据题干回文定位到第三段第六句话,其中it is not obvious是题干can hardly protect的同义替换。后文中指出when the users of these services don’t pay for it, 表明这种情况发生的原因是这些服务的用户没有付款,而真正付款的是advertisers,因此正确答案为D。
   35、[答案][D] the relationship between digital giants and their users

  [解析]观点例证题。根据题干中的关键词ants analogy回文定位到最后一段第二句话。而该例子论证的观点是上一句话,即最后一段的首句,该句指出“他们(Google和Facebook)所销售的商品是数据,而为了这些数据巨头(像Google和Facebook这样的数据信息企业)的利益,作为用户的我们将生活转向数据”,这句话揭示了用户和数据巨头之间的关系,通过数据联系在一起。数据巨头销售数据,用户生活中使用数据。因此正确答案为[D]选项,该例子论证了数据巨头和用户之间的关系。

  Text 4

  36、[答案][A] keep to your focus time

[解析]这是一道细节题。注意题干的一一对应,选项进行等价替换。根据题干定位到第二段最后一句。The key is to(题干对应) determine your length of focus time and stick to it(剩余信息为答案)。 对应选项 keep to(stick to)your focus time(your length of focus time)
   37、[答案][D] detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected [解析]根据题干为细节题,考察的是实验结论。The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that, 根据1980s和Harford快速找到定位第四段第二句,那么结论应该在后面,也就是第五段。第五段开头第一句while为让步,看主句部分they were wrong,冒号后面解释说,the detailed daily plans demotivated students。对应D选项,其中的may not be as fruitful对应demotivated。

  38、[答案][D] an essential factor in accomplishing any work

[解析]这是一道细节题。根据提干中的关键词,Newport和idleness,回文定位到第6段的Newport和第7段idleness,再结合第7段段末代词he, 考查到代词的指代问题,根据上下文确定此处的he指代Newport,确定第7段引号之内即为作者对于“idleness”的观点,由第7段后半句 idleness is ,paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done得出正确答案为 an essential factor in accomplishing any work,其中essential 是对原文necessary的同义替换,accomplishing any work是getting any work done的同义替换。
   39、[答案][B] can bring about greater efficiency

[解析]这是一道人物观点题,根据提干中的关键词,Pillay 回文定位到第8段,再进一步匹配题干中的剩余信息,our brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused定位至第8段段末处,our brains switch between being focused and unfocused,其中shift是switch的同义替换,由后半句 they tend to be more efficient得出正确答案为 can bring about greater effcieny, 是对原文tend to be more efficient的同义替换。
   40、[答案][B] approaches to getting more done in less time

  [解析]根据题干的特征,这是一道主旨题。文章开篇提出主题,关于“the ability to focus without distraction”, 第二段开头说“a number of approaches”, 提出方法,第四段开头another approach,所以这篇文章重点还是在说方法,所以B选项approaches to getting more done in less time为正确答案。more done in less time对应focus without distraction。

  Part B

  Part B

  41、[答案][A] (Just say it)

[解析]从下方段落中看到I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow。 So keep it simple: “Hi”, “Hey” or “Hello”——do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and say “Hi”。 中我们不难发现重复的内容say “Hi”, 也相当于get that first word out, 共同表达的内容就是开口说,故A (Just say it开口说) 与之完美对应。
   42、[答案][G] (Ask for an opinion)

[解析]从下方段落中出现So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions。 Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask。 中我们不难发现重复的内容ask, 根据复现词我们不难找到G (Ask for an opinion询问看法),与其后的“how much people are willing to share”(人们非常愿意分享)完美对应。
   43、[答案][E] (Find the “me too”s)

[解析]从下方对应段落When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point…中我们找到关键词have … in common有共同点。这与E (Find the “me too”s 寻找共同点)完美对应。
   44、[答案][B] (Be present)

[解析]从下方对应段落So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly。 因此当有人跟你跟你聊天时,要全身心的投入到谈话中,以及后面复现词eye contact进行眼神交流,我们找到B (Be present,在现场,投入当前事件中)能够与之对应。
   45、[答案][D] (Name, places, things)

  [解析]从下方对应段落…but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name。 Isn’t that awkward! …但是之后你可能再次见到时忘记了他们的名字。这不是很尴尬吗?通过反义疑问我们得知:应该要记得名字!而且随后So, remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to, the places they want to go, the things they like, the things they hate。因此,请记得你遇到且与之聊过天的这些人的一些小细节,比如他们去过的地方,他们想要去的地方,他们喜欢的以及讨厌的事物等等。从这些内容中我们不难找到与之对应的小标题D (Name, places, things)

  Section III Translation

  [全文翻译]

  一名五年级的学生的家庭作业要求他从一系列的职业中选出他未来的职业道路。他选择了“宇航员”,但很快又将“科学家”加入名单,也选了这一职业。这个男孩确信如果他读的书足够多,他就能想探索多少条职业道路,就探索多少条。因此他读书——从百科全书读到科幻小说。他如此狂热地阅读以致于他的父母不得不制定一条吃饭时“不能读书”的规矩。这个男孩就是比尔·盖茨,他从未停止过阅读 – 即便在他成为全球最成功人士之后也如此。今天,比尔盖茨的读物已经不再是科幻小说和参考书目:最近,他表示自己每年至少阅读50本非虚构读物。盖茨选择读非虚构类图书,因为这些书解释了世界是如何运作的。“每本书都开辟了探索新知识的道路。” 比尔盖茨说。

  [主句解析]

  句①:A fifth grader gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations。

  [题目考点]不定式作后置定语

  [参考译文]一名五年级的学生的家庭作业要求他从一系列的职业中选出他未来的职业道路。

  句②:He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it as well。

  [题目考点]并列句

  [参考译文]他选择了“宇航员”,但很快又将“科学家”加入名单。

  句③:The boy is convinced that if he reads enough, he can explore as many career paths as he likes。[题目考点]宾语从句;条件状语从句;比较结构

  [参考译文]这个男孩确信如果他读的书足够多,他就能想探索多少条职业道路,就探索多少条。

  句④:And so he reads—everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels。

  [题目考点]介宾短语作后置定语

  [参考译文]因此他读书——从百科全书读到科幻小说。

  句⑤:He reads so fervently that his parents have to institute a “no reading policy” at the dinner table。

  [题目考点]结果状语从句

  [参考译文]他如此狂热地阅读以至于他的父母不得不制定一条吃饭时“不能读书”的规矩。

  句⑥:That boy was Bill Gates, and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of the most successful people on the planet。

  [题目考点]并列句

  [句子结构]并列句主干分别为:that boy was Bill Gates, and he hasn’t stopped reading …

  [重点词汇]planet 星球

  [参考译文]这个男孩就是比尔·盖茨,他从未停止过阅读 – 即便在他成为全球最成功人士之后也如此。

  句⑦:Nowadays, his reading material has changed from sci-fi and reference books: recently, he revealed that he reads at least 50 nonfiction books a year。

  [题目考点]并列结构;宾语从句

  [句子结构]主干分别为:… material has changed from…。; he revealed …; he reads …50 …books…

  [重点词汇]sci-fi 科幻小说 reveal 揭露 nonfiction 非虚构

  [参考译文]今天,比尔盖茨的读物已经不再是科幻小说和参考书目:最近,他表示自己每年至少阅读50本非小说读物。

  句⑧:Gates chooses nonfiction titles because they explain how the world works。

  [题目考点]原因状语从句;宾语从句

  [参考译文]盖茨选择读非虚构类图书,因为这些书解释了世界是如何运作的。

  句⑨:“Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge to explore,” Gates says。

  [题目考点]宾语从句

  [参考译文]“每本书都开辟了探索新知识的道路。” 比尔盖茨说。

  Section IV Writing

  51。[参考范文]

  Dear Professor Smith,

  How have you been recently? I am exceedingly sorry to tell you that although I have promised to visit you this Friday, I have to cancel my travel plan because of the following reason。

  Two days ago, I suddenly accepted the notice that there would be an academic meeting this Friday night in our department and everyone was asked to attend。 I know that my changing plan has definitely caused some inconvenience to you。 I am so sorry for my failing to keep the promise of visiting you。 Therefore, in order to make up this situation, I wonder if you could give me another chance and spare some time to meet me next Monday。

  I am so sorry for any inconvenience caused by me。 Hope you can accept my apology and arrange a new time for me to visit you。 I am looking forward to your reply。

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  52。[参考范文]

  英语二大作文

  Emerging from the clearly depicted pie chart is the distribution of focusing factors of citizens in a city when choosing a restaurant in 2017, consisting of 4 parts, which are features, service, environment, price and other factors。 Among them, the proportion of service, environment, price and other factors is 26.8%, 23.8%, 8.4% and 4.7% respectively。 By contrast, the factor of focusing on features of the restaurant is in the lead, accounting for 36.3%。

  What has triggered this phenomenon? To begin with, with the fast development of national economy and personal wealth, people in China have stepped into an era of enjoying life, transforming traditional pattern of living。 Therefore, such a great proportion of citizens are more likely to focus on the features of a restaurant, instead of only concentrating on the price。 Moreover, in a society where living standard is highly advocated, citizens in mounting numbers in China, shrugging off their former habit of focusing on lower price, gradually find the service and environment of a restaurant is an essential factor。 According to a survey conducted by China Research Center, up to 87% Chinese people prefer to choose a comfortable and fashionable restaurant when they go out for eating。

  Taking into account what has been argued so far, I am inclined to think about the current situation is normal。 In view of the analysis above, it can be predicted that the trend will continue in the future。 Accordingly, it is of no necessity for the public to regard it with too much consideration。

 

2019年考研政治真题库高频考点与最新模拟试题

2019年考题英语真题库高频考点与最新模拟试题

2019年考题数学真题库高频考点与最新模拟试题

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